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Infection is a significant concern for people admitted to an inpatient setting. Infections acquired in the hospital setting oftentimes are resistant to antimicrobial therapy and more virulent in nature. Types of infections include pneumonia, central line- and catheter-associated infections, and infections after surgery. Pharmacists working in inpatient settings should be familiar with these infections, common pathogens, and preferred treatment. This continuing education module will review these infections, pathogens, treatment regimens, and prevention.
This course serves to review both acute and chronic heart failure, including the risk factors for developing heart failure, signs and symptoms, and tests used in diagnosis of heart failure. In addition, common medications used to treat both acute and chronic heart failure are reviewed, as well as current guidelines for the treatment of chronic heart failure.
This course covers women’s health management and medications used in this patient population. It reviews the physiology of female hormones, and details the various hormonal and nonhormonal contraceptive methods available. Management of pregnant and lactating patients and medication use in these populations is included. The course also discusses menopausal treatment and the current recommendations regarding hormonal use in this population. Additionally, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, and diagnosis of osteoporosis will be discussed. This course gives detailed information on the medications used to treat these conditions.
Toxicology has been described in literature for thousands of years. In the year 1230, the word “poison” first appeared in the literature, and was defined as a potion or draught that was prepared with deadly ingredients. Since then, poisons and toxicology have remained an important part of history. From intentional poisoning-related deaths to the significant increase in deaths related to drug abuse and overdose, toxicology remains a relevant topic in medicine today. This course will review general principles of toxicology as well as toxidromes and agents of toxicity. It includes specific discussion regarding antidotes and treating toxicologic emergencies with a focus on pharmacologic therapy.
The introduction of antibiotics into the practice of medicine has transformed the lives of millions of people. Infections that were once lethal are now easily treatable, and medical advances have been able to move forward through the use of antibiotics. Unfortunately, between 20 and 50 percent of all antibiotics administered in hospitals in the United States have been deemed either unnecessary or inappropriate. The misuse of antibiotics has contributed to increases in the rates of Clostridium difficile infections and adverse reactions to antibiotics, as well as the development of resistant strains of bacteria. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that approximately 23,000 deaths annually are caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms.
About the Course
- Differentiate the drug classifications, side effects, mechanisms of action, and drug interactions of antidepressant medications.
- Recommend a treatment plan for antidepressant therapy based on patient-specific characteristics.
- Discuss counseling points for medications used in the treatment of major depression.
- Distinguish differences in drug classifications, side effects, mechanism of action, and drug interactions between antianxiety medications.
- Design a treatment plan for antianxiety therapy based on patientspecific characteristics.
- Discuss counseling points for medications used in the treatment of anxiety disorders.
- Differentiate the side effects, mechanism of action, and drug interactions between medications used to treat bipolar disorder.
- Develop a treatment plan for bipolar therapy to prevent deterioration and stabilize the patient's condition based on patientspecific characteristics.
- Discuss counseling points for medications used in the treatment of bipolar disorders.
- Distinguish differences in drug classifications, side effects, mechanism of action, and drug interactions between medications used to treat schizophrenia.
- Recommend a treatment plan for treatment of schizophrenia based on patient-specific characteristics.
- Discuss counseling points for medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia.
- Determine differences in drug classifications, side effects, mechanism of action, and drug interactions between medications used to treat alcoholism.
- Design a treatment plan for treatment of alcoholism based on patient-specific characteristics.
- Discuss counseling points for medications used in the treatment of alcoholism.
- Determine appropriateness of treatment of mental health disorders in special populations, such as pregnant patients.
About the Author
Katie Ingersoll, RPh, PharmD, and Staff Pharmacist for a national chain.
Author Disclosure: Katie Ingersoll and Elite do not have any actual or potential conflicts of interest in relation to this lesson.